Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference on Deep Foundations, 2003, Miami Beach, FL "Deep Foundations in Compressible Soil and Soft Rock", (DFI)
Designed, PDA Assisted Load Tested, and Constructed Pile Foundation provides an Economical Foundation Solution – A Case History
Gregory A. Stephan PE, H. Frank Murati PE, D.S. “Sax” Saxena PE
A case history of design, prediction, probe pile driving, and construction of a pile foundation for Building 3 of Waterside at Bay Beach Condominiums located in Fort Myers Beach, southwest Florida, is presented. Site geometry constraints, the presence of a 12.0 ft (3.6 m) deep lake occupying the southern one-third portion of the proposed building footprint, and marginal subsoils provided specific challenges for design and construction of the foundation. The subsoil conditions were explored by performing Standard Penetration Test (SPT) borings and a Piezocone Penetration Test (PCPT) Sounding to depths of 100 ft 930.5 m) within the building footprint. Additionally, borings were performed to envelope the building. Deep foundation alternatives included driven concrete, monotube, and steel pipe pile as well as drilled shaft. Following an evaluation of high structural loads, site-specific constraints, foundation test data from buildings 1 and 2, and preference expressed by the project owner, a pre-cast prestressed concrete (PPC) pile-supported foundation system was selected as an economical and effective foundation approach. Use of an augered cast-in-place (ACIP) pile foundation system was precluded by the project structural engineer. This paper deals with the design aspects and methodologies utilized in choosing and economizing the foundation system. The building foundation was designed for an allowable pile capacity of 40 tons (353 kN) in compression, 1.5 tons (12 kN) in lateral capacity for a deflection of 0.25-in (0.64 cm) and 15 tons (133 kN) in uplift capacity. For the single story extended garage structure, a pile capacity of 27 tons (238 kN) was indicated in compression. As part of the design process, an extensive probe pile driving program was carried out in order to evaluate the pile driving equipment, determine and verify pile capacities, and optimize the production pile lengths. A total of 33, 14-in (356 mm) square, PPC concrete piles were driven within the entire building limits, and dynamically load tested utilizing Pile Driving Analyzer (PDA) as part of the probe pile driving program. Utilization of PDA during probe pile driving helped in prediction pile set-up (ie., increase in pile resistance with time) as well as reducing the pile lengths by as much as 20 percent. It resulted in variable pile lengths during the production phase. This information was effectively utilized as part of the overall quality control program to install a total of 559 PPC piles (including 33 probe piles) within the Building 3 footprint, including the reclaimed lake area, to depths ranging from 45 to 58 ft (14 to 18 m) below existing ground elevation as part of the foundation support system. Prior to installation of probe or production piles, a termination criterion was established using 1-dimensional wave equation analyses in addition to the design pile embedment requirement. The predicted pile capacities compared reasonably well with the capacities from the CAPWAP analyses for probe piles.
|article #1196; publication #66 (AM-2003)|