Proceedings of the 37th Annual Conference on Deep Foundations, 2012, Houston, TX, USA, (DFI)
Cased Auger Piles (CAP): An Effective Piling Solution
Continuous Flight Auger (CFA) technique represents an important technological advance in the construction of piles in soft soils. The possibility of excavation under the water table with no need for drilling fluids, along with high productivity, have resulted in this technique’s becoming widespread in many countries. However, CFA technology has limitations because of its difficulty in penetrating hard layers and cross strata with cobbles and boulders. In these situations, pile verticality may be an additional problem. The Cased Augered Pile (CAP) technique consists of penetrating the soil with an auger housed in a casing. Two independent rotary heads sliding along the rig mast operate the auger and the casing. By adjusting the height of the casing shoe and auger bit according to soil type, it is possible to drill piles in very severe conditions - in the presence of cobbles and boulders - and to socket the pile into the rock. The use of a steel casing enables improved pile verticality. Therefore, the CAP technique is also used to construct secant piles to be used as diaphragm walls. The limitations of this technology are the depth, usually no more than 27 m (88 feet), and the size of the rig that supports the drilling tool, no less than 70 t (77 short tons) in working conditions. This paper illustrates CAP technology, the drilling system, and the characteristics of concrete and steel reinforcement and offers a case study of the Palermo-Carini second railway line, which used CAP to construct the new 30 km (18.6 mi) railway line, 20 km (12.4 mi) of which passes through the very congested downtown area of Palermo. More than 300,000 m (186.4 mi) of piles have been drilled in dense calcarenite formations with unconfined compressive strength of 15-25 MPa (2,200-3,600 lb/inch2), soft clay, and silt formations.
|article #1847; publication #99 (AM-2012)|