Proceedings of the 37th Annual Conference on Deep Foundations, 2012, Houston, TX, USA, (DFI)
Building a High-Rise Adjacent To Transit Tunnels in San Francisco
Lori A. Simpson, Linda H. Liang
A high-rise building, consisting of two tower structures occupying the entire site, is in construction in San Francisco. The North Tower will consist of 12 and 35 stories above a one-level basement. The South Tower will consist of 9 and 22 stories over one partially below-grade level of common space; a portion of the South Tower will have a three-level basement. The towers will be supported on mat foundations bearing on native very dense sand in the footprint of the threelevel basement and on ground improved with soil-cement mixed (SCM) panels that extend through loose sand and marsh deposits into very dense sand. Shoring systems for the basement excavations include cantilevered and tiedback soldier-beam-and-lagging systems and SCM cutoff walls. Subsurface conditions include loose fill and Dune Sand and loose and soft marsh deposits overlying very dense sand of the Colma formation. Groundwater is approximately 15 to 22 feet deep; the three-level basement extends below groundwater. The site is on Market Street in San Francisco, with SF Municipal Railway (MUNI) and Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) tunnels running below Market Street approximately 45 and 36 feet north of the site, respectively. Both tunnels are 16.5 feet in diameter. The top of MUNI and BART tunnels are 25 feet and 63.5 feet below street grade, respectively. BART has stringent requirements regarding construction adjacent to their facilities, including disallowing adding pressure to their tunnel, lowering groundwater by more than two feet, and vibrations from construction activities. Design of the shoring and the foundations within the BART zone of influence were subject to their design requirements. The project was also subject to a peer review, as required by the San Francisco Department of Building Inspection. We used FLAC to evaluate stresses at the BART and MUNI tunnels and on the SCM panels. This paper will present the mitigations needed to address seismic hazards and BART restrictions and to provide adequate foundation support for a tall building with high seismic loads.
|article #1857; publication #99 (AM-2012)|