Proceedings of the 39th Annual Conference on Deep Foundations, 2014, Atlanta, GA, USA, (DFI)
Jet Grouting for Echo Dam Seismic Rehabilitation
Tara Schenk-McFarland, P.E. and Mark Bliss, P.E., Bureau of Reclamation
Echo Dam, located near Coalville, Utah, is a facility that provides storage for irrigation and municipal use. Original construction of the dam was completed in 1931. Because of seismic concerns, the spillway crest structure and upper chute section, founded on old landslide and colluvial material, were recently replaced. Prior to replacement of these structures, jet grouting of a block of the loose and potentially liquefiable soils, directly beneath the spillway crest structure was selected as the preferred alternative to address the potential for settlement and cracking of the spillway crest structure. The replacement or alteration of the in-place soil reduces the likelihood of seismic-induced excess pore pressure development and subsequent settlements. Core drilling and sample recovery of the production jet grouted columns was completed to verify compliance with the specifications. It was recognized that due to the larger rock sizes within the deposits that full homogeneity of the jet grouted zone was unlikely to be achievable. However, the purpose of this jet grouted section was to strengthen enough of the soil so that widespread liquefaction does not occur. During the jet grouting production many instances of ground fracturing occurred. Fracturing was evident based on grout/air bubbles exiting the surface near some of the grout holes during jet grouting, air bubbles appearing in the spoil pits, and lifting of the ground surface in the vicinity of the monitor during the jet grouting process while the system was pressurized. In one instance, a section of the upstream spillway slab, which was left in place, was cracked due to pressurized grout escaping beneath the slab. The overall results of the jet grouting were satisfactory despite difficulties encountered. The cause of the fracturing is hypothesized and a recommendation is included to reduce the likelihood of this occurring on future jobs.
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