Publication Abstract




Proceedings of the Deep Mixing 2015 Conference, (DFI)

Field and Laboratory Mix Trials for a Deep Soil/Cement/Bentonite Cut-Off Wall Using CSM Equipment
Russell J. Denny, Wagstaff Piling Pty Ltd., Australia

A 25m deep cut-off wall is required for environmental remediation of a Former Chlor-Alkali Plant. Extensive trials were conducted to verify the effectiveness of the mixes proposed, with the requirements of the cut-off wall to include limiting criteria for hydraulic permeability, vapour permeability and strength, over a 100 year design life. A limited number of field CSM trial panels were installed on a nearby site with similar stratigraphy, and a variety of mixes and mixing methodologies were used, together with the extraction of deep wet grabbed samples from the panels, which were tested for strength, hydraulic permeability and gas permeability. Test results obtained from these trials revealed a trend which allowed the construction methodology to be decided. Further to this, the mix design needed to be resolved, together with sensitivity analysis on the variations in the mix which might occur during construction, as a result of normal unavoidable variations in construction technique. Laboratory sampling would be used at lesser expense, to resolve the final mix design and analyse the sensitivity of the possible mix variations. An initial series of laboratory mixed samples were prepared using soil samples and groundwater obtained from the site, and testing carried out. However the test results in this initial series of laboratory tests could not match the results which had been achieved in the field trials. Closer scrutiny and investigation and rounds of sampling and testing, then revealed laboratory techniques for mixing and sampling which provided a logical way to match the actual field test results. CSM Construction is due to commence soon and will provide more extensive results which can be compared back to the laboratory trials. This project provides a valuable opportunity to resolve methods of laboratory sampling so that they compare well with results from in-situ deep mixing.


 article #2075; publication #1013 (DM-2015)