Proceedings of the 42nd Annual Conference on Deep Foundations, 2017, New Orleans, LA, USA, (DFI)
Remedial Method for Collapsible Soil Foundation of Mosul Dam
Ali N. Ibrahim and Arash Khosravifar
Large areas of Iraq are covered with collapsible soils namely gypsiferous soil which is often used as the foundation soil for structures. In particular, the Mosul Dam foundation is comprised of high contents of gypsiferous soils. Intrusion of water through the foundation soil dissolves gypsum which acts as the binding material between soil particles. This phenomenon results in the formation of collapsible soils which can cause serious damages to the dam structure. The failure of Mosul Dam, with a reservoir as large as 11 billion cubic meter of water, can be catastrophic. In the past, Mosul Dam Authorities have been remediating the soil foundation by injecting cement mortar. This method has been proved not economic; therefore, new, more efficient, methods are desperately needed. This research study focuses on finding practical methods to remediate collapsibility of gypsiferous soils by improving their geotechnical properties. This study presents remediation of collapsible gypsum-rich soil by grouting. Three types of stabilizer materials were used to make the grout; (1) sodium silicate (Na/sub 2/ O/sub 3/ Si) which is a well-known chemical soil stabilizer, (2) bentonite slurry, and (3) silicone oil. The purpose for using these stabilizer materials is to provide an impermeable layer (waterproofing coat) around the gypsiferous soil particles and to fill the voids that may occur in the soil as a result of gypsum dissolution when subjected to water. A series of double oedometer (collapse) tests and direct shear tests were carried out on gypsiferous soils before and after remediation by grouting. The results show that the soil compressibility decreases in the grout-treated gypsiferous soil by reducing volumetric strain. Consequently, the potential for collapsibility decreases too. It was also shown that grouting, increases the shear strength of the soil at confining stresses smaller than 250 kPa by increasing the cohesion combined with a slight reduction in the internal friction angle.
|article #2817; publication #1037 (AM-2017)|