Grouting and Ground Treatment: Proceedings of the Third International Conference, (ASCE)
A Case History of Ground Treatment with Jet Grouting Against Liquefaction, for a Cigarette Factory in Turkey
H.T. Durgunoglu, H.F. Kulac, K. Oruc, R. Yildiz, J. Sickling, I.E. Boys, T. Altugu, C. Emrem
This case study reports the application of jet grouting is the ground treatment method for the construction of a cigarette factory in Tire Organized Industrial Zone located at the west of Turkey. Total treatment area covers approximately 20000 m2 and designed to house a factory building, a two-storey administration building and utilities building. The project is carried out according to international standards (mainly British) following quality control and quality assurance schemes. The site situated within the Kucuk Menderes alluvial plain 70 km south-east of the Agean coastal city of Izmir and classified as being within the1st Degree Earthquake Zone (greatest risk category). Stratigraphy of the site was shown to comprise uncontrolled fill overlaying alluvial deposits, predominantly micaceous silt with interbedded sandy gravels and clays, overlying colluvial deposits, comprising stiff sandy clays, draped over the steeply dipping bedrock. Alluvial deposit thickness reaches a maximum of 12m and the groundwater lies at a depth of 4.7m, below the base of the fill. The maximum design loading for individual factory columns was too large for shallow foundations and hence deep bores pile foundations are implemented for the factory building. However, the slab-on-grades of the factory building and some auxiliary buildings are supported only on jet grout columns. The liquefaction risk beneath all buildings is eliminated by systematic jet grouting design based on specific area ratio reaching down to colluvium layer. The jet grout columns are mainly constructed by double fluid method since single fluid method was insufficient in silt deposits to obtain the design diameter of 80 cm. The soils were improved by approximately 32000 m of jet grouting, to reduce liquefaction potential considering the high seismic activity of the region and to increase the bearing support for the slabs-on-grade for the main factory and for the shallow foundations. An extensive testing programme consisting of coring, exhumation, piston-sampling for compression testing and full-scale load tests was performed for the quality control of jet grout column construction. A site specific detailed calibration survey of the jet grouting technique with various parameters was implemented at the beginning of the works. This paper describes the design, construction and performance of jet grouting application focusing on the results of quality control tests performed during the improvement works.
|article #1092; publication #62 (GRT-2003)|