Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference on Deep Foundations, 2005, Chicago, Illinois, USA, (DFI)
Analysis of Laterally Loaded Free-Head Pile Groups in Sand
Dr. Ashraf M. Eid
Most research dealing with the problem of laterally loaded piles has been the response of individual piles subjected to lateral loads and/or bending moments. However, piles are seldom used individually but are normally constructed in clusters or groups. Little information is available of the effect of pile-soil-pile interaction (PSPI) on the performance of the group. This may be attributed to the difficulty of carrying out full-scale tests. Such tests are prohibitively expensive and require special installations to provide required large lateral loads. The problem of laterally loaded single piles or pile groups involves the complexity of extending the theoretical solutions to the limits where the actual soil behaves nonlinearly. As the load increases, the elastic soil behavior cannot be adopted for design. Non linear soil behavior or the elasto-plastic behavior is evident. This research consists of experimental and theoretical models. The experimental work was conducted on models of free head pile groups in different configurations. The piles were in a sand formation and compared to the behavior of a single pile. The possible factors that influence the group behavior could be visualized. The experimental data was also compared to the widely used theoretical approaches to determine their adequacy. The analytical model makes use of the finite difference approach to calculate the soil non-linearly. A new approach equates the measured ground deflection and maximum bending moments of each row at every load level with the analytical model of single pile. This is the Deflection Moment Fitting (DMF). The most suitable non-linear soil modulus modes and row contributions could thus be determined. Design of pile groups can be based on data pertaining to soil characteristics of the single pile. Results of the analysis were consistent with other approaches and proved to be adequate for design.
|article #246; publication #72 (AM-2005)|